ES5: The Foundation
Robust Methods: ES5 introduced robust methods, which helped catch common coding mistakes and improved performance.
JSON Support: Added native JSON support, which simplified data exchange between clients and servers.
New Methods: ES5 introduces more array-object conversion methods such as forEach(), map(), and Object. nail().
ES6 (ES2015): Game Changer
Arrow Functions: This abbreviated function simplifies the rule and gives it its true size.
Classes: ES6 introduced class syntax for creating objects and constructor functions.
Let and Const: Let and const have replaced var for variable declarations, providing better scope options.
Template Literals: This allowed string insertion and multi-character strings.
ES7: Introduction to objects such as Array.prototype.includes() and exponentiation (**) operators.
ES8: Async/wait for asynchronous programming and Object.entries() to work with objects.
ES9: Things like resting/diffusion properties, asynchronous repeatability, and promising improvements.
ES10: Introduction to Array.flat(), Array.flatMap(), and Object.fromEntries().
ES11: Introduction to BigInt for processing large integers and using Nullish Coalescing and Optional Chaining for safe codes.
ES2020 and above
ES2020: Features such as dynamic import(), BigInt enhancements, and chain selection.
ES2022: Introduction to class static initialization blocks, globalThis, and improvements to Promise.